Table 2.

GHG emissions for production of jet fuel by application of CADO to ethanol made from starch, sugar, cane cellulosic material, and corn stover and by conventional production from petroleum

From ethanolFrom petroleum
Ethanol feedstockConversion technologyEmission (gCO2 e/MJ of fungible blendstock)
Feedstock production and ethanol conversionCatalytic conversion of ethanolJet fuel useWTWa*PTWaWTWa
First generation73.287.3
 Corn starchCurrent45.
 Cane sugarCurrent23.
Second generation
 Cane cellulosic,§Current14.
 Cane cellulosic,§Projected13.
 Corn stoverCurrent23.
 Corn stoverProjected0.
  • PTWa, pump-to-wake which includes combustion of fuel in an aviation system; WTWa, well-to-wake which includes the full supply, production, and use chain. Values for catalytic conversion include emissions due to transportation and distribution of ethanol, estimated at 0.85 gCO2e/MJ.

  • * Negative percent values represent percentage of GHG emission reduction compared to petroleum jet fuel.

  • Provided by Argonne National Laboratory for corn starch ethanol case.

  • Provided by Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory based on Dias et al. (41).

  • § Cane cellulosic refers to an integrated first- and second-generation process in Brazilian context.

  • Provided by Argonne National Laboratory based on previous study by Lynd et al. (43). Corn Stover Base Case based on National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-47764 (36).