Table 1.

Definition of transfer types as well as counts and percentages of fishing-probe transfer types for each population

Transfer type*DefinitionGoualougo (n = 110)Gombe (n = 106)
Preceded by request
 ActivePossessor moves to facilitate transfer or divides tool so recipient can take a portion (U, P)222000
 PassivePossessor allows recipient to take tool without showing either facilitation or hesitation (U, P)109.121.9
 HesitantRecipient begs, then grasps tool; possessor transfers tool only after delaying or resisting the transfer (U, P, S§)1210.954.7
 RefusalPossessor does not transfer tool despite begging; possessor may actively resist transfer (e.g., pull away) (U, P)1412.74037.7
 Possession changeTool changes possession after a beg, but possessor’s specific reaction is not visible (U, P)43.600
 Unknown possession changePossession change cannot be discerned, and possessor’s specific reaction is not visible (U, P)10.900
Total number of requests6357.34744.3
Not preceded by request
 ProactivePossessor initiates transfer; tool changes possession (U, P)0000
 Tolerated takePossessor allows recipient to take tool; possessor shows neither facilitation nor hesitation (U, P, S)1513.62624.5
 StealRecipient takes tool from possessor, who reacts negatively (e.g., attempts to keep tool or threatens stealer#,||) (U, P, S)87.387.5
 Failed stealRecipient tries unsuccessfully to take possessor’s tool; possessor exhibits a negative reaction, as in “steal” (U, P, S)16**14.51514.2
 Failed attemptRecipient tries unsuccessfully to take possessor’s tool; possessor does not react (U, P, S)87.3109.4
Total number of take attempts4742.75955.7
  • n, number of transfers.

  • * Transfer types were categorized according to whether or not they were preceded by a request, whether a possession change occurred, whether the tool possessor protested the transfer, and whether at the time of transfer the tool was in use (U), physical possession (P), or spatial possession (S). The table excludes 2 transfers for which it could not be discerned whether or not there was a request.

  • Sensu “active-passive” and “active” transfer (29).

  • Sensu “passive” transfer (29).

  • § Transfers could be classified as a Hesitant transfer if a tool was in the possessor’s spatial possession at the time of possession change only if the tool was initially in use or physical possession. For example, a Hesitant transfer was coded if there was a request after which the possessor dropped the tool on the ground, and the recipient took possession.

  • If the tool was in use or in physical possession, this is equivalent to “passive” if there is no begging; if the tool was in spatial possession, this is equivalent to “recovery” (29).

  • # Adapted from ref. 46.

  • || For similar approaches, see ref. 29, “theft,” and refs. 46 and 8387.

  • ** Includes one transfer that occurred in a play context.