Table 1.

Illustrative examples of intervention-and-effect relationships in the context of climate change mitigation

Intervention typesSmall effectBig effect
Small interventionAn incremental change, e.g., a town mitigation plan (157)A tipping effect, e.g., feed-in tariffs in the German “Energiewende” (158)
Big interventionInefficient interventions, e.g., the implementation of the European Carbon Emission Trading Scheme leading to a marginal reduction of greenhouse gas emissions due to leakage effects (159)An elephant effect, e.g., reducing the Earth’s carbon burden by means of solar radiation management geoengineering (160)