Table 3.

Synthesis of the research results on the key candidates for social tipping elements selected by the experts and their associated social tipping interventions

Social tipping elementSocial tipping interventionControl parameterKey actorsGHG emission reduction potentialDominant social structure levelEstimated time needed to trigger tipping
STE1: Energy production and storageSTI1.1: Subsidy programsThe relative price of fossil-fuel–free energyGovernments, energy ministries, big energy producers (68)Up to 21% globally in 1 y (68)National policy (68)10 to 20 y (including the policy-formative phase) (161)
STI1.2: Decentralized energy productionCitizens, communities (73), local governments (162), policy makers (163), energy planners (164)Up to 100% in power supply (61)Community/town governance (165)Less than 10 y (81)
STE2: Human settlementsSTI2.2: Carbon-neutral citiesThe demand for fossil-fuel–free technologyCity administration, citizens, and citizen groups (166)Reduction by 32% in 14 y (91)Urban governance (91)Approximately 10 y (91).
STE3: Financial marketSTI3.1: Divestment movementProfitability of fossil fuel exploitationFinancial investors (96)26% emissions tied to investments of a large Canadian university (167)Market exchange, enterprise (98)Very rapid, could occur within hours (142)
STE4: Norms and values systemSTI4.1: Recognition of the immoral character of fossil fuelsThe perception of fossil fuels as immoralPeer groups, environmental organizations, youth, opinion leaders (168170)UnprecedentedInformal institutions, enforcement through peer groups (171)30 to 40 y (172)
STE5: Education systemSTI5.1: Climate education and engagementClimate change and impacts awarenessTeachers, climate educators (117), youth (113)Up to 30% reduction in 2 y in the emissions of the Italian households included in the study (124)National policy (173)10 to 20 y (173)
STE6: Information feedbackSTI6.1: Emission information disclosureThe number of products and services disclosing their carbon emissionsThe business and producers; governments for setting disclosure guidelines and regulations (174)Up to 10% reduction of emissions in UK households' grocery consumption in a year (175)Market, exchange (176); enterprise (177)A few years (178)