Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 106, Number 35

PNAS September 1, 2009

This Week in PNAS

Letters (Online Only)

Commentaries

Physical Sciences

Applied Physical Sciences

Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers may be the proximate neurotoxins in Alzheimer's disease (AD). “Oligomer” is an ill-defined term because many kinds have been reported and they often exist in rapid equilibrium with monomers and higher-order assemblies. We ...

Chemistry

Unnatural oligomers that can mimic protein surfaces offer a potentially useful strategy for blocking biomedically important protein-protein interactions. Here we evaluate an approach based on combining α- and β-amino acid residues in the context of a ...
Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at ...
Understanding the behavior of hydrogen-rich systems at extreme conditions has significance to both condensed matter physics, where it may provide insight into the metallization and superconductivity of element one, and also to applied research areas, ...
Electrodeposition is a widely used materials-deposition technology with a number of unique features, in particular, the efficient use of starting materials, conformal, and directed coating. The properties of the solvent medium for electrodeposition are ...
Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of hypusine containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Recombinant human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (...

Environmental Sciences

Global warming is expected to lead to a large increase in atmospheric water vapor content and to changes in the hydrological cycle, which include an intensification of precipitation extremes. The intensity of precipitation extremes is widely held to ...
In a recent multimodel detection and attribution (D&A) study using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated “fingerprint” pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor was identifiable with high statistical ...
We demonstrate a unique parameter for biomolecule separation that results from the nonlinear response of long, charged polymers to electrophoretic fields and apply it to extraction and concentration of nucleic acids from samples that perform poorly under ...

Geophysics

Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 ...

Social Sciences

Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

Eleven predictions derived from the recalibrational theory of anger were tested. This theory proposes that anger is produced by a neurocognitive program engineered by natural selection to use bargaining tactics to resolve conflicts of interest in favor of ...

Biological Sciences

Agricultural Sciences

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a mysterious disappearance of honey bees that has beset beekeepers in the United States since late 2006. Pathogens and other environmental stresses, including pesticides, have been linked to CCD, but a causal relationship ...

Applied Biological Sciences

We demonstrate a unique parameter for biomolecule separation that results from the nonlinear response of long, charged polymers to electrophoretic fields and apply it to extraction and concentration of nucleic acids from samples that perform poorly under ...
MDCK cells are currently being considered as an alternative to embryonated eggs for influenza virus propagation and hemagglutinin (HA) production intended for vaccine manufacturing. MDCK cells were found suitable for the virus production but their ...
Increasing evidence indicates that an important consequence of protein posttranslational modification (PTM) is the creation of a high affinity binding site for the selective interaction with a PTM-specific binding protein (BP). This PTM-mediated ...

Biochemistry

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of hypusine containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Recombinant human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (...
Mutations in the HSD17B10 gene were identified in two previously described mentally retarded males. A point mutation c.776G>C was found from a survivor (SV), whereas a potent mutation, c.419C>T, was identified in another deceased case (SF) with ...
In Escherichia coli, it is genetically well established that the β-clamp and RecA are essential cofactors that endow DNA polymerase (Pol) V with lesion bypass activity. However, the biochemical basis for these requirements is still largely unknown. ...
The quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) discriminates between native and nonnative proteins. The latter are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Whereas many cytosolic and membrane components of this system are ...
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) by the Site-2 protease (S2P) results in the release of a transmembrane signaling protein. Curiously, however, S2P cleavage must be preceded by the action of the Site-1 protease (S1P). To decipher the underlying ...
ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, its RNA-binding site, the functional relationship between the two ...
The Get3 ATPase directs the delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). TA-proteins are characterized by having a single transmembrane helix (TM) at their extreme C terminus and include many essential proteins, such as ...

Biophysics and Computational Biology

Unnatural oligomers that can mimic protein surfaces offer a potentially useful strategy for blocking biomedically important protein-protein interactions. Here we evaluate an approach based on combining α- and β-amino acid residues in the context of a ...
Gap junction (GJ) channels assembled from connexin (Cx) proteins provide a structural basis for direct electrical and metabolic cell–cell communication. By combining fluorescence imaging and dual whole-cell voltage clamp methods, we demonstrate that in ...
In many naturally occurring habitats, bacteria live in micrometer-size confined spaces. Although bacterial growth and motility in such constrictions is of great interest to fields as varied as soil microbiology, water purification, and biomedical research,...
Radical S-adenosine-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) proteins are involved in chemically difficult reactions including the synthesis of cofactors, the generation of protein radicals, and the maturation of complex organometallic catalytic sites. In the first ...

Cell Biology

Zinc co-crystallizes with insulin in dense core secretory granules, but its role in insulin biosynthesis, storage and secretion is unknown. In this study we assessed the role of the zinc transporter ZnT8 using ZnT8-knockout (ZnT8−/−) mice. Absence of ZnT8 ...
Glucose and glutamine are abundant nutrients required for cell growth, yet how cells sense and adapt to changes in their levels is not well understood. The MondoA transcription factor forms a heterocomplex with its obligate partner Mlx to regulate ≈75% of ...
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to cancer metastasis. Two ZEB family members, ZEB1 and ZEB2(SIP1), inhibit transcription of the E-cadherin gene and induce EMT in vitro. However, their relevance to human cancer is insufficiently ...
Patterning of developing tissues arises from a number of mechanisms, including cell shape change, cell proliferation, and cell sorting from differential cohesion or tension. Here, we reveal that differences in cell motility can also lead to cell sorting ...

Developmental Biology

Pancreatic β-cells are critical regulators of glucose homeostasis, and they vary dramatically in their glucose stimulated metabolic response and levels of insulin secretion. It is unclear whether these parameters are influenced by the developmental origin ...

Evolution

Research ArticleSeptember 1, 2009From the Cover

The origin of malignant malaria

Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malignant malaria, is among the most severe human infectious diseases. The closest known relative of P. falciparum is a chimpanzee parasite, Plasmodium reichenowi, of which one single isolate was previously ...
Paleogenomics seeks to reconstruct ancestral genomes from the genes of today's species. The characterization of paleo-duplications represented by 11,737 orthologs and 4,382 paralogs identified in five species belonging to three of the agronomically most ...

Genetics

Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in ...
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a malignancy of B-cell origin in which the neoplastic cells, known as “Reed-Sternberg” (RS) cells, are characteristically binucleated. Here we describe a family where multiple individuals developing cHL have inherited a ...
Disruptions in local chromatin structure often indicate features of biological interest such as regulatory regions. We find that sonication of cross-linked chromatin, when combined with a size-selection step and massively parallel short-read sequencing, ...
The retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein, pRb, is a member of the pocket protein family that includes p107 and p130. These proteins have well-defined roles in regulating entry into and exit from the cell cycle and also have cell cycle–independent roles ...
The centromere of an eukaryotic chromosome can move to a new position during evolution, which may result in a major alteration of the chromosome morphology and karyotype. This centromere repositioning phenomenon has been extensively documented in ...

Immunology

Angiotensin II is the principle effector molecule of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). It exerts its various actions on the cardiovascular and renal system, mainly via interaction with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R), which contributes to ...
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major regulator of blood pressure. The octapeptide angiotensin II (AII) is proteolytically processed from the decapeptide AI by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and then acts via angiotensin type 1 ...
Eczema vaccinatum (EV) is a complication of smallpox vaccination occurring in patients with atopic dermatitis. In affected individuals, vaccinia virus (VV) spreads through the skin, resulting in large primary lesions and satellite lesions, and infects ...
The textbook planar model of pentameric IgM, a potent activator of complement C1q, is based upon the crystallographic structure of IgG. Although widely accepted, key predictions of this model have not yet been directly confirmed, which is particularly ...
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli invade bladder epithelial cells (BECs) by direct entry into specialized cAMP regulated exocytic compartments. Remarkably, a significant number of these intracellular bacteria are subsequently expelled in a nonlytic and ...
Recent discoveries suggest cysteine-stabilized toxins and antimicrobial peptides have structure–activity parallels derived by common ancestry. Here, human antimicrobial peptide hBD-2 and rattlesnake venom-toxin crotamine were compared in phylogeny, 3D ...
Cells of the monocyte–macrophage lineage play a central role in the orchestration and resolution of inflammation. Plasticity is a hallmark of mononuclear phagocytes, and in response to environmental signals these cells undergo different forms of polarized ...
A remarkable feature of the adaptive immune system is the speed at which small numbers of antigen-specific lymphocytes can mediate a successful immune response. Rapid expansion of T and B lymphocyte clones that have receptors specific for a particular ...

Medical Sciences

The recent progress made in the bioengineering of cardiac patches offers a new therapeutic modality for regenerating the myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI). We present here a strategy for the engineering of a cardiac patch with mature vasculature ...
Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies ...
Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Because astrocytic gliosis marked by the deposition of fibrils composed of GFAP is a prominent feature of prion disease, we asked whether GFAP might be used as a surrogate marker ...
Phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) desensitize β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) signaling, and these are thought to be mechanisms involved with cell and organ homeostasis and tolerance to agonists. However,...

Microbiology

Since its first description in coastal Connecticut in 1976, both the incidence of Lyme disease and the geographic extent of endemic areas in the US have increased dramatically. The rapid expansion of Lyme disease into its current distribution in the ...
The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the most frequent antecedent in neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. C. jejuni was demonstrated to possess ...

Neuroscience

We demonstrate that channelrhodopsin-2 (CR), a light-gated ion channel that is conventionally activated by using visible-light excitation, can also be activated by using IR two-photon excitation (TPE). An empirical estimate of CR's two-photon absorption ...
The amygdala is important for determining the emotional significance of environmental stimuli. However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. Here ...
Gliotransmission, the release of molecules from astrocytes, regulates neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in situ. Whether this process affects neuronal network activity in vivo is not known. Using a combination of astrocyte-specific molecular ...
A clear demonstration of the role of melatonin and its receptors in specific retinal functions is lacking. The present study investigated the distribution of MT1 receptors within the retina, and the scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERG) and ...
Eye-opening represents a turning point in the function of the visual cortex. Before eye-opening, the visual cortex is largely devoid of sensory inputs and neuronal activities are generated intrinsically. After eye-opening, the cortex starts to integrate ...
Synaptic plasticity is considered essential for learning and storage of new memories. Whether all synapses on a given neuron have the same ability to express long-term plasticity is not well understood. Synaptic microanatomy could affect the function of ...

Physiology

WNK4 (with no lysine kinase 4) inhibits ROMK channel activity in the distal nephron by stimulating clathrin-dependent endocytosis, an effect attenuated by SGK1 (serum-glucocorticoids-induced kinase)-mediated phosphorylation. It has been suggested that ...

Plant Biology

Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification common in peptides and proteins synthesized by the secretory pathway in most eukaryotes. In plants, this modification is critical for the biological activities of a subset of peptide hormones such as ...

Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

Eleven predictions derived from the recalibrational theory of anger were tested. This theory proposes that anger is produced by a neurocognitive program engineered by natural selection to use bargaining tactics to resolve conflicts of interest in favor of ...
Scientific understanding of social pain—the hurt feelings resulting from social rejection, separation, or loss—has been facilitated by the hypothesis that such feelings arise, in part, from some of the same neural and neurochemical systems that generate ...

Systems Biology

microRNAs comprise a few percent of animal genes and have been recognized as important regulators of a diverse range of biological processes. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs requires effective means to identify their targets. Combined ...

Corrections

View the cover image for PNAS Vol.106; No.35
View the cover image for PNAS Vol.106; No.35

Cover image: Pictured is an artist's rendering of GFP-labeled Escherichia coli bacteria in a nanofabricated channel on a silicon chip. Jaan Männik et al. suggest that rod-shaped E. coli (Left) become flattened when these bacteria enter into narrow slit-like channels but can proliferate in such a confined environment and yield L-form-like shapes (Right) upon exiting the channel. See the article by Männik et al. on pages 14861–14866. Image courtesy of Technical University Delft (The Netherlands) and Tremani (The Netherlands).

Submit to PNAS

Submit to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and have your research discovered by millions of researchers in the Biological, Physical, and Social Sciences.

Submit your manuscript