Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 95, Number 22

PNAS October 27, 1998

Commentaries

Perspective

The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are well measured, cause a strong positive (warming) forcing. But other, ...

Physical Sciences

Chemistry

Research ArticleOctober 27, 1998Inaugural Article

Charge transfer and transport in DNA

We explore charge migration in DNA, advancing two distinct mechanisms of charge separation in a donor (d)–bridge ({Bj})–acceptor (a) system, where {Bj} = B1,B2, … , BN are the N-specific adjacent bases of B-DNA: (i) two-center unistep ...

Engineering

Recently, a new method to analyze biological nonstationary stochastic variables has been presented. The method is especially suitable to analyze the variation of one biological variable with respect to changes of another variable. Here, it is ...

Mathematics

The stability of the functional equation f(x ○ y) = H(f(x), f(y)) (x, y ∈ S) is investigated, where H is a homogeneous function and ○ is a square-symmetric operation on the set S. The results presented include and generalize the classical theorem ...

Physics

By using a simplified model of small open liquid-like clusters with surface effects, in the gas phase, it is shown how the statistical thermodynamics of small systems can be extended to include metastable supersaturated gaseous states not too far ...

Statistics

This paper deals with pattern recognition of the shape of the boundary of closed figures on the basis of a circular sequence of measurements taken on the boundary at equal intervals of a suitably chosen argument with an arbitrary starting point. A ...

Biological Sciences

Applied Biological Sciences

A lactonohydrolase from Fusarium oxysporum AKU 3702 is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of aldonate lactones to the corresponding aldonic acids. The amino acid sequences of the NH2 terminus and internal peptide fragments of the enzyme were ...
Existing methods for assessing protein synthetic rates (PSRs) in human skeletal muscle are invasive and do not readily provide information about individual muscle groups. Recent studies in canine skeletal muscle yielded PSRs similar to results of ...

Biochemistry

The electronic nature of low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) in enzymatic reactions is discussed based on combined low temperature neutron and x-ray diffraction experiments and on high level ab initio calculations by using the model substrate ...
Homologous antisense constructs were used to down-regulate tobacco cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR; EC 1.2.1.44) activities in the lignin monomer biosynthetic pathway. CCR converts activated ...
We have used in vitro evolution to probe the relationship between stability and activity in a mesophilic esterase. Previous studies of these properties in homologous enzymes evolved for function at different temperatures have suggested that ...
α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogs, cyclized through site-specific rhenium (Re) and technetium (Tc) metal coordination, were structurally characterized and analyzed for their abilities to bind α-MSH receptors present on melanoma ...
Cytochrome c oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water that is accompanied by pumping of four protons across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane. Triggered by the results of recent x-ray crystallographic analyses, published data ...
Random mutagenesis and screening for enzymatic activity has been used to engineer horse heart myoglobin to enhance its intrinsic peroxidase activity. A chemically synthesized gene encoding horse heart myoglobin was subjected to successive cycles ...
Thermus thermophilus possesses an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS2) able to aspartylate efficiently tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. Aspartate mischarged on tRNAAsn then is converted into asparagine by an ω amidase that differs structurally from all known ...
Asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn-tRNA) and glutaminyl-tRNA (Gln-tRNA) are essential components of protein synthesis. They can be formed by direct acylation by asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) or glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS). The alternative route ...
In skeletal muscle myosin, the reactive thiols (SH1 and SH2) are close to a proposed fulcrum region that is thought to undergo a large conformational change. The reactive thiol region is thought to transmit the conformational changes induced by ...
SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP), a membrane-bound glycoprotein, regulates the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which are membrane-bound transcription factors that control lipid synthesis in ...
A key step in signal transduction in the visual cell is the light-induced conformational change of rhodopsin that triggers the binding and activation of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Site-directed mAbs against bovine rhodopsin were ...
The nature of chaperone action in the eukaryotic cytosol that assists newly translated cytosolic proteins to reach the native state has remained poorly defined. Actin, tubulin, and Gα transducin are assisted by the cytosolic chaperonin, CCT, but ...
Methyl chloride transferase catalyzes the synthesis of methyl chloride from S-adenosine-l-methionine and chloride ion. This enzyme has been purified 2,700-fold to homogeneity from Batis maritima, a halophytic plant that grows abundantly in salt ...
Two RNases H of mammalian tissues have been described: RNase HI, the activity of which was found to rise during DNA replication, and RNase HII, which may be involved in transcription. RNase HI is the major mammalian enzyme representing around 85% ...
The α subunit (Gα) of heterotrimeric G proteins is a major determinant of signaling selectivity. The Gα structure essentially comprises a GTPase “Ras-like” domain (RasD) and a unique α-helical domain (HD). We used the vertebrate phototransduction ...
A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme was isolated from a cDNA library of the corpora allata (CA) from reproductively active Diploptera punctata cockroaches. This P450 from the endocrine glands that produce the insect juvenile hormone (JH) is ...
Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole–...
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevation in protein oxidative damage during the aging process is a targeted rather than a stochastic phenomenon. Oxidative damage to proteins in mitochondrial membranes in the flight ...
Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are mimics with normal bases connected to a pseudopeptide chain that obey Watson–Crick rules to form stable duplexes with itself and natural nucleic acids. This has focused attention on PNA as therapeutic or diagnostic ...
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family member proteins previously were shown to play a critical role in mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation in yeast and Xenopus. Other family members were demonstrated to be required for ...
Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) is the antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O2•−) to O2 and H2O2. In addition, Cu,ZnSOD also exhibits peroxidase activity in the presence of H2O2, leading to self-inactivation ...
The x-ray crystal structures of trans-cinnamoyl–subtilisin, an acyl-enzyme covalent intermediate of the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg, have been determined to 2.2-Å resolution in anhydrous acetonitrile and in water. The cinnamoyl–subtilisin ...
Protein acetylation has been implicated in the regulation of HIV-1 gene transcription. Here, we have exploited the activities of four native histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes from yeast to directly test whether acetylation regulates HIV-1 ...

Biophysics

Protein aggregation is studied by following the simultaneous folding of two designed identical 20-letter amino acid chains within the framework of a lattice model and using Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that protein aggregation is ...
Imaging of H217O has a number of important applications. Mapping the distribution of H217O produced by oxidative metabolism of 17O-enriched oxygen gas may lead to a new method of metabolic functional imaging; regional cerebral blood flow also can ...
The EPR spectra of spin-labeled lipid chains in fully hydrated bilayer membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine containing 40 mol % of cholesterol have been studied in the liquid-ordered phase at a microwave radiation frequency of 94 GHz. At ...
Elucidation of the molecular details of the cyclic actomyosin interaction requires the ability to examine structural changes at specific sites in the actin-binding interface of myosin. To study these changes dynamically, we have expressed two ...
The linear pentadecapeptide antibiotic, gramicidin D, is a naturally occurring product of Bacillus brevis known to form ion channels in synthetic and natural membranes. The x-ray crystal structures of the right-handed double-stranded double-...
Insoluble protein fibrils resulting from the self-assembly of a conformational intermediate are implicated as the causative agent in several severe human amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and senile ...
In this work, we used direct measurements with the surface force apparatus to determine the pH-dependent electrostatic charge density of a single binding face of streptavidin. Mean field calculations have been used with considerable success to ...

Cell Biology

Neuritic outgrowth is a striking example of directed motility, powered through the actions of molecular motors. Members of the myosin superfamily of actin-associated motors have been implicated in this complex process. Although conventional myosin ...
Signal transduction pathways that mediate activation of serum response factor (SRF) by heterotrimeric G protein α subunits were characterized in transfection systems. Gαq, Gα12, and Gα13, but not Gαi, activate SRF through RhoA. When Gαq, α12, or ...
To determine the role of intracellular Ca2+ in compaction, the first morphogenetic event in embryogenesis, we analyzed preimplantation mouse embryos under several decompacting conditions, including depletion of extracellular Ca2+, blocking of Ca2+ ...
Centrosomes and their associated microtubules direct events during mitosis and control the organization of animal cell structures and movement during interphase. The centrosome replicates during the cell cycle, directs the assembly of bipolar ...
Infection of vertebrate cells with alphaviruses normally leads to prodigious expression of virus-encoded genes and a dramatic inhibition of host protein synthesis. Recombinant Sindbis viruses and replicons have been useful as vectors for high ...
Plant cell vacuoles may have either storage or degradative functions. Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are synthesized in response to wounding and to developmental switches that affect carbon and nitrogen sinks. Here we show that VSPs are stored ...
Dictyostelium myosin II is activated by phosphorylation of its regulatory light chain by myosin light chain kinase A (MLCK-A), an unconventional MLCK that is not regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin. MLCK-A is activated by autophosphorylation of threonine-...
Successful gene therapy depends on stable transduction of hematopoietic stem cells. Target cells must cycle to allow integration of Moloney-based retroviral vectors, yet hematopoietic stem cells are quiescent. Cells can be held in quiescence by ...
We examined the mechanisms by which two different types of photonic radiation, short wavelength UV (UV-C) and γ radiation, activate transcription factor NF-κB. Exposure of mammalian cells to either form of radiation resulted in induction with ...
Triacylglycerols are quantitatively the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis, by using ...

Developmental Biology

Neuregulins are a multi-isoform family of growth factors that activate members of the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The membrane-anchored isoforms contain the receptor-activating ligand in their extracellular domain, a single membrane-...
During vertebrate limb development, growth plate chondrocytes undergo temporally and spatially coordinated differentiation that is necessary for proper morphogenesis. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), its receptor, the PTH/PTHrP ...
Exposure to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that blocks Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, promotes pancreatic expansion in embryonic chicks. Heterotopic development of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine structures occurs in regions adjacent to the ...
The ability to use a vital cell marker to study mouse embryogenesis will open new avenues of experimental research. Recently, the use of transgenic mice, containing multiple copies of the jellyfish gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP),...

Ecology

Marine diatoms require dissolved silicate to form an external shell, and their growth becomes Si-limited when the atomic ratio of silicate to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Si:DIN) approaches 1:1, also known as the “Redfield ratio.” Fundamental ...
Central to swarm formation in migratory locusts is a crowding-induced change from a “solitarious” to a “gregarious” phenotype. This change can occur within the lifetime of a single locust and accrues across generations. It represents an extreme ...

Evolution

Two features make the tooth an excellent model in the study of evolutionary innovations: the relative simplicity of its structure and the fact that the major tooth-forming genes have been identified in eutherian mammals. To understand the nature ...
Hox complex genes control spatial patterning mechanisms in the development of arthropod and vertebrate body plans. Hox genes are all expressed during embryogenesis in these groups, which are all directly developing organisms in that embryogenesis ...

Genetics

The pufferfish Fugu rubripes has a genome ≈7.5 times smaller than that of mammals but with a similar number of genes. Although conserved synteny has been demonstrated between pufferfish and mammals across some regions of the genome, there is some ...
A set of oat–maize chromosome addition lines with individual maize (Zea mays L.) chromosomes present in plants with a complete oat (Avena sativa L.) chromosome complement provides a unique opportunity to analyze the organization of centromeric ...
Gene silencing is an important but little understood regulatory mechanism in plants. Here we report that a viral sequence, initially identified as a mediator of synergistic viral disease, acts to suppress the establishment of both transgene-...
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility syndrome with at least eight complementation groups (A–H). Two FA genes, corresponding to complementation groups A and C, have been cloned, but the function of the FAA and FAC ...
Low caloric intake (caloric restriction) can lengthen the life span of a wide range of animals and possibly even of humans. To understand better how caloric restriction lengthens life span, we used genetic methods and criteria to investigate its ...
Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene responsible for WS encodes a member of the RecQ-like subfamily of DNA helicases. ...
Genes that are characteristic of only certain strains of a bacterial species can be of great biologic interest. Here we describe a PCR-based subtractive hybridization method for efficiently detecting such DNAs and apply it to the gastric pathogen ...
Translesion synthesis at replication-blocking lesions requires the induction of proteins that are controlled by the SOS system in Escherichia coli. Of the proteins identified so far, UmuD′, UmuC, and RecA* were shown to facilitate replication ...

Immunology

Inhibitors of the protease of HIV-1 have been used successfully for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients and AIDS disease. We tested whether these protease inhibitory drugs exerted effects in addition to their antiviral activity. Here, we show ...
A 3-yr-old female patient exhibited interleukin 12 (IL-12) deficiency that was associated with recurrent episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia with sepsis and other infections in the absence of fevers. The patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...
Cytokine-inducible protein SSI-1 [signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-induced STAT inhibitor 1, also referred to as SOCS-1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 1) or JAB (Janus kinase-binding protein)] negatively regulates ...
Common Variable Immuno-Deficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary antibody-deficiency syndrome, but the basic immunologic defects underlying this syndrome are not well defined. We report here that among eight patients studied (six ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) instruct and activate a naive immune system to mount a response toward foreign proteins. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that an ideal vaccine strategy would be to directly introduce genes encoding antigens into DCs. To ...
The HIV-1 Tat protein is a potent chemoattractant for monocytes. We observed that Tat shows conserved amino acids corresponding to critical sequences of the chemokines, a family of molecules known for their potent ability to attract monocytes. ...
Although adenovirus can infect a wide range of cell types, lymphocytes are not generally susceptible to adenovirus infection, in part because of the absence of the expression of the cellular receptor for the adenoviral fiber protein. The cellular ...
The anti-common gamma chain (γc) mAb CP.B8 is shown to inhibit interleukin 4 (IL-4)-dependent proliferation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated T cells noncompetitively with respect to cytokine by blocking the IL-4-induced heterodimerization of ...
Developing autoreactive B cells edit their B cell antigen receptor (BCR) in the bone marrow and are clonally deleted when they fail to reexpress an innocent BCR. Here, inducible Cre-loxP-mediated gene inversion is used to change the specificity of ...

Medical Sciences

Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with leukemias characterized by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 and other translocations. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A metabolizes epipodophyllotoxins and other chemotherapeutic agents. CYP3A ...
Diets high in fat are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, although the molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously reported that arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid common in the Western diet, stimulates ...
CM101, an antiangiogenic polysaccharide derived from group B streptococcus, was administered by i.v. injection 1 hr post-spinal-cord crush injury in an effort to prevent inflammatory angiogenesis and gliosis (scarring) in a mouse model. We ...
The Ink4a/Arf locus encodes p16Ink4a and p19Arf and is among the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor loci in human cancer. In mice, many of these effects appear to be mediated by interactions between p19Arf and the p53 tumor-suppressor ...
Deficiency of dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl glucosyltransferase is the cause of an additional type of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS type V). Clinically this type resembles the classical type Ia of CDGS caused by the ...
The application of immunoprotein-based targeting strategies to the boron neutron-capture therapy of cancer poses an exceptional challenge, because viable boron neutron-capture therapy by this method will require the efficient delivery of 103 boron-...
Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania that affect more than 20 million people in the world. The initial phase of the infection is fundamental for either the progression or control of the disease. The Leishmania ...
A common mutation (C677T) in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (5-methyltetrahydrofolate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.99.5), a key regulatory enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, results in a thermolabile variant ...
A human fibroblast cDNA expression library was screened for cDNA clones giving rise to flat colonies when transfected into v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. One such gene, RECK, encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein of about 110 kDa with ...

Microbiology

Understanding the effects of the external environment on bacterial gene expression can provide valuable insights into an array of cellular mechanisms including pathogenesis, drug resistance, and, in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, latency. ...
The influenza C virus CM2 protein is a small glycosylated integral membrane protein (115 residues) that spans the membrane once and contains a cleavable signal sequence at its N terminus. The coding region for CM2 (CM2 ORF) is located at the C ...

Neurobiology

Neuritic outgrowth is a striking example of directed motility, powered through the actions of molecular motors. Members of the myosin superfamily of actin-associated motors have been implicated in this complex process. Although conventional myosin ...
The PRNP polymorphic (methionine/valine) codon 129 genotype influences the phenotypic features of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. All tested cases of new variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (nvCJD) have been homozygous for methionine, and ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are known to be involved in a variety of developmental processes that play key roles in the establishment of synaptic connectivity during embryonic development, but recent evidence implicates the same molecules in ...
Members of the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in the regulation of developmental processes and, in particular, axon guidance in the developing nervous system. The function of the EphA4 (Sek1) receptor was explored ...
Paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia (POMA) is a neurologic disorder thought to be mediated by an autoimmune attack against onconeural disease antigens that are expressed by gynecologic or lung tumors and by neurons. One POMA disease antigen,...
Transporters for the biogenic amines dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin are largely responsible for transmitter inactivation after release. They also serve as high-affinity targets for a number of clinically relevant psychoactive ...
Amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). How Aβ induces neurodegeneration in AD is not known. A connection between AD and cholesterol metabolism is suggested by the finding that people ...
While chemical synapses are very plastic and modifiable by defined activity patterns, gap junctions, which mediate electrical transmission, have been classically perceived as passive intercellular channels. Excitatory transmission between auditory ...
Ras proteins, key regulators of growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation, recently have been implicated in synaptic function and region-specific learning and memory functions in the brain. Rap proteins, members of the Ras small G ...
The relation between changes in brain and plasma concentrations of neurosteroids and the function and structure of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors in the brain during pregnancy and after delivery was investigated in rats. In contrast ...
Mood disorders are among the most common neuropsychiatric illnesses, yet little is known about their neurobiology. Recent neuroimaging studies have found that the volume of the subgenual part of Brodmann’s area 24 (sg24) is reduced in familial ...
The striking illusions produced by simultaneous brightness contrast generally are attributed to the center-surround receptive field organization of lower order neurons in the primary visual pathway. Here we show that the apparent brightness of ...
In this second part of our study on the mechanism of perceived brightness, we explore the effects of manipulating three-dimensional geometry. The additional scenes portrayed here demonstrate that the same luminance profile can elicit different ...

Pharmacology

Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) toward the α subunits of heterotrimeric, signal-transducing G proteins. RGS11 contains a G protein γ subunit-like (GGL) domain between its Dishevelled/Egl-10/...
The enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) H2, the precursor of PGs and thromboxane. These lipid mediators play important roles in inflammation and pain and ...

Plant Biology

A far-red type of oxygenic photosynthesis was discovered in Acaryochloris marina, a recently found marine prokaryote that produces an atypical pigment chlorophyll d (Chl d). The purified photosystem I reaction center complex of A. marina contained ...
Collectively, the xanthophyll class of carotenoids perform a variety of critical roles in light harvesting antenna assembly and function. The xanthophyll composition of higher plant photosystems (lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) is remarkably ...
A rapidly growing area of genome research is the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in which large numbers of randomly selected cDNA clones are partially sequenced. The collection of ESTs reflects the level and complexity of gene ...
Protein translocation into peroxisomes takes place via recognition of a peroxisomal targeting signal present at either the extreme C termini (PTS1) or N termini (PTS2) of matrix proteins. In mammals and yeast, the peroxisomal targeting signal ...
Temperature lability of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase; ADP: α-d-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.27), a key starch biosynthetic enzyme, may play a significant role in the heat-induced ...

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