Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 121, Number 16

PNAS April 16, 2024

This Week in PNAS

Opinion

Commentaries

Perspective

The past 15 y has seen much development in documentation of domestication of plants and animals as gradual traditions spanning millennia. There has also been considerable momentum in understanding the dispersals of major domesticated taxa across ...

Letters

Physical Sciences

Applied Physical Sciences

The distortion by gravity of a quasi-static bubble attached on an upward facing surface in a quiescent liquid is investigated. The contact angle evolution during the growth of such a bubble is studied, and the consequences on the motion of the contact ...
Many composites consist of matrices of elastomers and nanoparticles of stiff materials. Such composites often have superior properties and are widely used. Embedding elastomers with nanoparticles commonly necessitates intense shear, using machines like ...
Different mechanisms driving a linear temperature dependence of the resistivity ρT at van Hove singularities (VHSs) or metal-insulator transitions when doping a Mott insulator are being debated intensively with competing theoretical proposals. We ...

Biophysics and Computational Biology

Compact chromatin is closely linked with gene silencing in part by sterically masking access to promoters, inhibiting transcription factor binding and preventing polymerase from efficiently transcribing a gene. However, a broader hypothesis suggests that ...
Smart polymer materials that are nonliving yet exhibit complex “life-like” or biomimetic behaviors have been the focus of intensive research over the past decades, in the quest to broaden our understanding of how living systems function under ...
Tissue development occurs through a complex interplay between many individual cells. Yet, the fundamental question of how collective tissue behavior emerges from heterogeneous and noisy information processing and transfer at the single-cell level remains ...

Chemistry

The oxidation of cycloalkanes is important in the combustion of transportation fuels and in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation. A transient carbon-centered radical intermediate (•QOOH) in the oxidation of cyclohexane is identified through its ...
In recent decades, peptide amphiphiles (PAs) have established themselves as promising self-assembling bioinspired materials in a wide range of medical fields. Herein, we report a dual-therapeutic system constituted by an antimicrobial PA and a cylindrical ...

Engineering

Suction is a highly evolved biological adhesion strategy for soft-body organisms to achieve strong grasping on various objects. Biological suckers can adaptively attach to dry complex surfaces such as rocks and shells, which are extremely challenging for ...
Localized deformation and randomly shaped imperfections are salient features of buckling-type instabilities in thin-walled load-bearing structures. However, it is generally agreed that their complex interactions in response to mechanical loading are not ...

Environmental Sciences

The advancement of atomically precise dinuclear heterogeneous catalysts holds great potential in achieving efficient catalytic ozonation performance and contributes to the understanding of synergy mechanisms during reaction conditions. Herein, we ...

Sustainability Science

Effective policies for adaptation to climate change require understanding how impacts are related to exposures and vulnerability, the dimensions of the climate system that will change most and where human impacts will be most draconian, and the ...

Social Sciences

Anthropology

A central prediction of evolutionary theory is that energy invested into reproduction comes at the expense of somatic maintenance and repair, accelerating biological aging. Supporting this prediction are findings that high fertility among women predicts ...

Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

Algorithmic bias occurs when algorithms incorporate biases in the human decisions on which they are trained. We find that people see more of their biases (e.g., age, gender, race) in the decisions of algorithms than in their own decisions. Research ...
Many mainstream organizations celebrate their historical successes. In their history, however, they often marginalized racial minorities, women, and other underrepresented groups. We suggest that when organizations celebrate their histories, even without ...
Childhood maltreatment (CM) leads to a lifelong susceptibility to mental ill-health which might be reflected by its effects on adult brain structure, perhaps indirectly mediated by its effects on adult metabolic, immune, and psychosocial systems. Indexing ...
Research on attentional selection of stimulus features has yielded seemingly contradictory results. On the one hand, many experiments in humans and animals have observed a “global” facilitation of attended features across the entire visual field, even ...

Social Sciences

Over 45,000 gun deaths occur annually in the United States, a country with more than 100 million gun owners and more than 350 million guns. Nevertheless, passing legislation to reduce gun violence is difficult because the issue is intensely polarized. ...

Sustainability Science

Effective policies for adaptation to climate change require understanding how impacts are related to exposures and vulnerability, the dimensions of the climate system that will change most and where human impacts will be most draconian, and the ...

Biological Sciences

Agricultural Sciences

Organic carbon availability in soil is crucial for shaping microbial communities, yet, uncertainties persist concerning microbial adaptations to carbon levels and the ensuing ecological and evolutionary consequences. We investigated organic carbon ...

Anthropology

A central prediction of evolutionary theory is that energy invested into reproduction comes at the expense of somatic maintenance and repair, accelerating biological aging. Supporting this prediction are findings that high fertility among women predicts ...

Applied Biological Sciences

Viral outbreaks can cause widespread disruption, creating the need for diagnostic tools that provide high performance and sample versatility at the point of use with moderate complexity. Current gold standards such as PCR and rapid antigen tests fall ...
Climate change projections for coral reefs are founded exclusively on sea surface temperatures (SST). While SST projections are relevant for the shallowest reefs, neglecting ocean stratification overlooks the striking differences in temperature ...
Differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has been thoroughly investigated for application in cell therapy against diabetes. In the context of induced pancreatic endocrine cell implantation, previous studies ...

Biochemistry

Protecting chromosome ends from misrecognition as double-stranded (ds) DNA breaks is fundamental to eukaryotic viability. The protein complex shelterin prevents a DNA damage response at mammalian telomeres. Mammalian shelterin proteins TRF1 and TRF2 and ...
Bacterial collagenases are important virulence factors, secreted by several pathogenic Clostridium, Bacillus, Spirochaetes, and Vibrio species. Yet, the mechanism by which these enzymes cleave collagen is not well understood. Based on biochemical and ...
Langya virus (LayV) is a recently discovered henipavirus (HNV), isolated from febrile patients in China. HNV entry into host cells is mediated by the attachment (G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins which are the main targets of neutralizing antibodies. We ...

Biophysics and Computational Biology

Secondary-active transporters catalyze the movement of myriad substances across all cellular membranes, typically against opposing concentration gradients, and without consuming any ATP. To do so, these proteins employ an intriguing structural mechanism ...
The SNAP receptor (SNARE) proteins syntaxin-1, SNAP-25, and synaptobrevin mediate neurotransmitter release by forming tight SNARE complexes that fuse synaptic vesicles with the plasma membranes in microseconds. Membrane fusion is generally explained by ...
Fluid efflux from the brain plays an important role in solute waste clearance. Current experimental approaches provide little spatial information, and data collection is limited due to short duration or low frequency of sampling. One approach shows tracer ...

Cell Biology

Glucose is required for generating heat during cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in adipose tissue, but the regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. CREBZF has emerged as a critical mechanism for metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver ...
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is the persistent reshuffling of cancer karyotypes via chromosome mis-segregation during cell division. In cancer, CIN exists at varying levels that have differential effects on tumor progression. However, mis-segregation ...
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent type of regulated cell death resulting from extensive lipid peroxidation and plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanisms for ferroptosis sensitivity remain ...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate the transfer of proteins, lipids, and genetic material between cells and are recognized as an additional mechanism for sustaining intercellular communication. In the epidermis, the communication between melanocytes ...

Developmental Biology

Tissue development occurs through a complex interplay between many individual cells. Yet, the fundamental question of how collective tissue behavior emerges from heterogeneous and noisy information processing and transfer at the single-cell level remains ...
GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, originating from the embryonic ventral forebrain territories, traverse a convoluted migratory path to reach the neocortex. These interneuron precursors undergo sequential phases of tangential and radial migration before ...
As a result of partial hepatectomy, the remaining liver tissue undergoes a process of renewed proliferation that leads to rapid regeneration of the liver. By following the early stages of this process, we observed dramatic programmed changes in the DNA ...

Ecology

Microbes grow in a wide variety of environments and must balance growth and stress resistance. Despite the prevalence of such trade-offs, understanding of their role in nonsteady environments is limited. In this study, we introduce a mathematical model of ...
Communication between insects and plants relies on the exchange of bioactive molecules that traverse the species interface. Although proteinic effectors have been extensively studied, our knowledge of other molecules involved in this process remains ...
Fine root lifespan is a critical trait associated with contrasting root strategies of resource acquisition and protection. Yet, its position within the multidimensional “root economics space” synthesizing global root economics strategies is largely ...

Genetics

Compact chromatin is closely linked with gene silencing in part by sterically masking access to promoters, inhibiting transcription factor binding and preventing polymerase from efficiently transcribing a gene. However, a broader hypothesis suggests that ...
The ability of neurons to rapidly remodel their synaptic structure and strength in response to neuronal activity is highly conserved across species and crucial for complex brain functions. However, mechanisms required to elicit and coordinate the acute, ...
Despite the conservation of genetic machinery involved in eye development, there is a strong diversity in the placement of eyes on the head of animals. Morphogen gradients of signaling molecules are vital to patterning cues. During Drosophila eye ...
Developmental phenotypic changes can evolve under selection imposed by age- and size-related ecological differences. Many of these changes occur through programmed alterations to gene expression patterns, but the molecular mechanisms and gene-regulatory ...

Immunology and Inflammation

Anti-melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody–positive dermatomyositis (DM) is characterized by amyopathic DM with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Patients with anti-MDA5 antibody–associated ILD frequently develop rapidly progression ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by stenosis and occlusions of small pulmonary arteries, leading to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and right heart failure. Although accumulating evidence shows the importance of interleukin (IL)-...

Microbiology

In recent decades, peptide amphiphiles (PAs) have established themselves as promising self-assembling bioinspired materials in a wide range of medical fields. Herein, we report a dual-therapeutic system constituted by an antimicrobial PA and a cylindrical ...
Many organisms that utilize the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle for autotrophic growth harbor metabolic pathways to remove and/or salvage 2-phosphoglycolate, the product of the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (...
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) cause hundreds of millions of infections annually. The single-stranded RNA genome of flaviviruses is translated into a polyprotein, which is cleaved equally into individual functional ...
Antimicrobial resistance was estimated to be associated with 4.95 million deaths worldwide in 2019. It is possible to frame the antimicrobial resistance problem as a feedback-control problem. If we could optimize this feedback-control problem and ...
Bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in modulating microbial ecology. Within the human microbiome, the factors influencing the long-term coexistence of phages and bacteria remain poorly investigated. Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7) are ubiquitous ...
All forms of life are presumed to synthesize arginine from citrulline via a two-step pathway consisting of argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase using citrulline, adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP), and aspartate as substrates. Conversion ...
Urinary tract infections (UTI) account for a substantial financial burden globally. Over 75% of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which have demonstrated an extraordinarily rapid growth rate in vivo. This rapid growth rate appears ...

Neuroscience

Childhood maltreatment (CM) leads to a lifelong susceptibility to mental ill-health which might be reflected by its effects on adult brain structure, perhaps indirectly mediated by its effects on adult metabolic, immune, and psychosocial systems. Indexing ...
Research on attentional selection of stimulus features has yielded seemingly contradictory results. On the one hand, many experiments in humans and animals have observed a “global” facilitation of attended features across the entire visual field, even ...
A major aspiration of investors is to better forecast stock performance. Interestingly, emerging “neuroforecasting” research suggests that brain activity associated with anticipatory reward relates to market behavior and population-wide preferences, ...
Cortical dynamics and computations are strongly influenced by diverse GABAergic interneurons, including those expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Together with excitatory (E) neurons, they form a ...
Face pareidolia is a tendency to seeing faces in nonface images that reflects high tuning to a face scheme. Yet, studies of the brain networks underwriting face pareidolia are scarce. Here, we examined the time course and dynamic topography of gamma ...
In primates, high-acuity vision is mediated by the fovea, a small specialized central region of the retina. The fovea, unique to the anthropoid lineage among mammals, undergoes notable neuronal morphological changes during postnatal maturation. However, ...
For nearly a century, evidence has accumulated indicating that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) contains neurons essential to sustain wakefulness. While lesion or inactivation of LH neurons produces a profound increase in sleep, stimulation of inhibitory LH ...
Vesicular release of neurotransmitters and hormones relies on the dynamic assembly of the exocytosis/trans-SNARE complex through sequential interactions of synaptobrevins, syntaxins, and SNAP-25. Despite SNARE-mediated release being fundamental for ...

Pharmacology

Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) are stem cells in the adult lung that contribute to lower airway repair. Agents that promote the selective expansion of these cells might stimulate regeneration of the compromised alveolar epithelium, an etiology-...

Physiology

Pores through ion channels rapidly transport small inorganic ions along their electrochemical gradients. Here, applying single-channel electrophysiology and mutagenesis to the archetypal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, we show that ...

Plant Biology

Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal signaling molecule that acts as a second messenger in various organisms. It is well established that cAMP plays essential roles across the tree of life, although the function of cAMP in land ...

Population Biology

Antibiotics are considered one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine in the last century. Due to the use and overuse of these drugs, there have been increasing frequencies of infections with resistant pathogens. One form of resistance, ...

Correction

View the cover image for PNAS Vol.121; No.16
View the cover image for PNAS Vol.121; No.16

Cover image: Pictured are shallow coral reef habitats in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Jennifer K. McWhorter et al. downscaled climate models to quantify patterns of ocean warming in the mesophotic zone, at depths of 30–50 meters, in the Great Barrier Reef. Thermal stratification, in which warm water sits atop cool and dense water, insulates corals in the mesophotic zone from surface heatwaves. However, if global warming exceeds 3 °C above pre-industrial levels, water temperatures in the mesophotic zone may exceed 30 °C, a recognized mortality threshold for corals. See the article by McWhorter et al. e2303336121. Image credit: George Roff.

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